|Caffeine (kola nut, guarana)||- Augments the release of catecholamines, resulting in stimulation of CNS
and CV system.
- Competitively antagonizes the receptors for adenosine causing vasoconstriction.
|Citrus aurantium||Natural source of adrenergic agonists synephrine and octopamine which can elevate mean arterial pressure.|
|Willowbark||Reduces renal clearance of ephedrine due to salacin content.|
|Amino Acids||Reduces renal clearance of ephedrine.|
|Uva Ursi||↓ body fluids to increase likelihood of ↓ clearance of ephedrine.|
|Senna and Cascara||Anthraquinone glucosides which can increase ephedrine levels.|