Table 2: FDA-Approved Oral Medications
Medication Class Medications Mechanism of Action2,6
Sulfonylureas Glipizide* (Glucotrol®, Glucotrol® XL)
Glyburide* (Diabeta®, Micronase®)

Glimepiride* (Amaryl®)
Increases reactivity of the pancreas to blood glucose concentrations resulting in an increased secretion of insulin
Biguanides Metformin*
(Glucophage®, Glucophage® XR, Fortamet®)
Reduces the amount of glucose that is produced hepaticallyIncreases the ability of liver and muscle to utilize insulin
Thiazolidinediones Rosiglitazone* (Avandia®)
Pioglitazone* (Actos®)
Increases the sensitivity of muscle, liver, and adipose tissue to insulin
Meglitinides Nateglinide (Starlix®)
Repaglinide (Prandin®)
Produces an increase in insulin secretion with short onset (15-30 min) and duration (4-6 hrs)
α-Glucosidase Inhibitors Acarbose* (Precose®)
Miglitol (Glyset®)
Blocks the action of α-glucosidase, an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates in the small intestine, resulting in decreased glucose peaks after meals
Combination Products Glipizide/Metformin (MetaglipTM)
Glyburide/Metformin (Glucovance®)
Rosiglitazone/Metformin (Avandamet®)
Combines the action of each representative class

FDA: Food and Drug Administration
* Included on The Cleveland Clinic Foundation's Formulary of Accepted Drugs

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