Table 4. Other Substances Added to Ephedra Products
Herb Effect
Caffeine (kola nut, guarana) - Augments the release of catecholamines, resulting in stimulation of CNS and CV system.
- Competitively antagonizes the receptors for adenosine causing vasoconstriction.
Citrus aurantium Natural source of adrenergic agonists synephrine and octopamine which can elevate mean arterial pressure.
Willowbark Reduces renal clearance of ephedrine due to salacin content.
Amino Acids Reduces renal clearance of ephedrine.
Uva Ursi ↓ body fluids to increase likelihood of ↓ clearance of ephedrine.
Senna and Cascara Anthraquinone glucosides which can increase ephedrine levels.

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